CIPHI Ontario Seminar Series - Student Edition
This CIPHI Seminar Series will feature three student abstracts.
Microbial Levels of Kibbeh Nayyeh
Presenter: Mahmoud Kanaan
Kibbeh Nayyeh is a raw beef ready-to-eat dish typically found in the Middle East, but also prepared and served in Canada. Under Section 33 (7) of Ontario Regulation 562: Food Premises (1990), it is specified that all ground meat, with the exception of poultry, must be cooked to an internal temperature of 71 degrees Celsius for at least 15 seconds. After the Canadian Food Inspection Agency issued a February 2012 warning to customers not to consume ground beef sold at a particular supermarket in Ottawa due to possible E. coli contamination, some Ontario public health units chose to ban the sale of kibbeh nayyeh. . The purpose of this study was to measure microbial levels of kibbeh nayyah as sold in butcher shops in Ontario and determine if it can be safe for consumption within a 24-hour period if correctly prepared. Thirty samples were aseptically collected from three butcher shops in the Guelph area between February 1st and March 16th, 2017. Once collected, the samples were transported to the University of Guelph Laboratory and tested for the presence of Total coliforms and E. coli. According to the 2010 Ontario Ready-To-Eat Guidelines, 3% of the samples were satisfactory for total coliforms while 27% were marginal and 70% were unsatisfactory. As for E. coli, 83% of the samples were satisfactory, 7% were marginal, and 10% were unsatisfactory. Evidence indicates that contamination of the ground beef did occur during the process of preparation, in some cases from fecal contamination, rendering the samples collected unsafe for consumption.
The Relationship Between Construction and WNV Transmission
Presenter: Adam King
Currently subdivisions under construction are considered private property until assumed by municipalities, a process that can take between 3 and 6 years. For an extensive period of time a subdivision can actively breed WNV vectors without intervention. This study looked into changes in the mean number of mosquitoes trapped per batch for every year within the Region of Peel, comparing the mean number during years where the trap was subject to the potential influence of subdivision construction, and during years where there was no reasonable influence from construction to determine if there was a relationship between proximity to subdivision construction and risk of WNV transmission to the surrounding population. 12 years of mosquito surveillance data from the Region of Peel, and a Mann-Whitney statistical test were used to asses this relationship. The Results of the research indicated that subdivision construction increased the number of mosquitoes trapped per batch, but not by a statistically significant amount, however, multiple other environmental factors were not isolated for in this study
Bugged out: Entomophagy Safety Risks and Legislative Review
Presenter: Nicole Juchniewicz
The act of eating insects is called “entomophagy”. Once considered taboo in Western culture, it is becoming more common due to travel, trade and immigration. Globally, approximately 2 billion people eat insects regularly. With an increase in entomophagy, there is a need to research potential health risks associated with consuming insects in order to determine if policies and procedures need to be created or updated in Ontario. This review of policies related to entomophagy was conducted to create baseline knowledge of what other countries have done to regulate insects intended for human consumption. This study reviewed current literature on the safety risks surrounding entomophagy and current policies and regulations in Canada, the US, the EU, Australia and New Zealand. The literature was systematically searched by key terms, to identify specific entomophagy subject matter. The literature was organized into a spreadsheet by key terms used, ways in which they were found, and the key information drawn from the literature. In this session, the safety risks of entomophagy identified through this policy review will be shared, including microbial risks on raw insects, physical hazards, chemical hazards, allergens, and microbial risks after processing and handling. The study continues to evaluate how Canada, the US, the EU, Australia and New Zealand address these safety risks through their current policies and regulations.